Thermoelectric Effects Apparatus
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Investigate the thermal behavior of 3 commonly used electrical thermometry devices (3-pole metal resistor, thermistor, and thermocouple) and study the behavior of a closed-loop control system. Operate the system in P, PI, PD, and PID modes to show their characteristics. Includes instructions. Recommended for advanced or college level physics. Needed but not supplied: a digitial multimeter.
The Thermoelectric Effects Apparatus is designed for 2 types of investigations:
- Investigating the thermal characteristics and measuring techniques of 3 devices commonly used for industrial and technical thermometry
- Investigating the configuration, adjustment, and behavior of a closed-loop digital controller operating a simple load with a slow response
The instruction manual contains sample activities and sample data.
Heater Supply: Regulated Voltage Source: 0- to 36-V DC, 10-turn potentiometer control
Digital Current Display: 0.000 to 1.999 A
Cooling Fan: 12-V DC, 0.14 A, on/off switch control
Digital Controller: Configurable for P, PI, PD, or PID mode
Process Value (PV) Range: 0 to 400° C (factory defaultsettable)
Set Value (SV) Range: Same as PV range
PV Temperature Display: 4-digit, resolution 1° C or 0.1° C
SV Temperature Display: 4-digit, resolution matches PV
24 settable parameters
2 parameters determined by apparatus configuration
Power Input: 110-V AC, 60 Hz, 65 W
Fuse: Miniature type, 5 x 20 mm, F1.5 A, 250 V
Dimensions: Oven: 13 cm H x 35 cm W x 31 cm D
Brass Heating Block: 40 mm diam x 67 mm H
Weight: 5.2 kg (11-1/2 lb)
Thermocouple (K-type, Chromel-Alumel)
Chromel: Ni, 90%; Cr, 10%
Alumel: Ni, 95%; Mn, 2%; Al, 2%; Si, 1%
The thermocouple generates approximately 4 mV for a temperature difference of 100° C between the hot and cold junctions. Measurement of the output between room temperature and 100° C can conveniently be made using a digital multimeter with a resolution of 0.01 mV or an appropriate data logger. The temperature of the ice water should be measured before and after the experiment using independent means, such as a thermometer or temperature probe.
Platinum Resistors, "PT100" (100 Ω at 0° C) and a "PT50" (50 Ω at 0° C)
Each is connected through the multipole cable and the control unit to the front measuring sockets, where 1 lead of each of the resistors is connected to the central black socket. This makes a 3-wire resistor configuration. All of the 4 leads from the resistors through the multipole cable are identical and can be assumed to have identical resistances, which will vary with the temperature gradient but always remain equal. Similarly, the resistances of the 4 identical leads inside the control unit will be equal.
The thermistor is an NTC resistor with a resistance of about 12 kΩ at 25° C (the usual reference temperature for specifying thermistors) and about 1 kΩ at 100° C. The resistance can be conveniently measured using a DMM or an appropriate data logger.
The insulated flask (included) will retain ice water for approximately 3 hr, depending on the lab's ambient temperature.
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